The Trump administration`s office proposed the USMCA citing new measures for digital commerce, strengthening the protection of trade secrets and adapting the rules of origin of automobiles among the benefits of the trade agreement.  In addition to the provisions of the original NAFTA, the USMCA borrows significant credits under the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) trade agreements and the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for the Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP). On April 3, 2020, Mexico announced its willingness to implement the agreement and joined Canada.  The agreement came into force on July 1, 2020.     To see the full text of the agreement between the United States, Mexico and Canada, click here. The negotiations focused „primarily on car exports, tariffs on steel and aluminum, as well as the milk, egg and poultry markets.“ A provision „prevents any party from enacting laws that restrict the cross-border flow of data.“  Compared to NAFTA, the USMCA increases environmental and labour standards and encourages domestic production of cars and trucks.  The agreement also provides up-to-date intellectual property protection, gives the U.S. more access to the Canadian milk market, imposes a quota for Canadian and Mexican auto production, and increases the customs limit for Canadians who purchase U.S. products online from $20 to $150.  The full list of differences between USMCA and ALEFTA is listed on the Website of the United States Trade Representative (USTR).  NAFTA has three primary dispute resolution mechanisms.
Chapter 20 is the settlement mechanism for countries. It is often considered the least controversial of the three mechanisms, and has been maintained in its original form from NAFTA to the USMCA. In such cases, complaints filed by USMCA Member States against the duration of the contract would be violated.  In Chapter 19, the justifications for anti-dumping or countervailing duties are managed. Without Chapter 19, the avenue of recourse for the management of these policies would be through the national legal system. Chapter 19 provides that an USMCA body hears the case and acts as an international commercial tribunal to arbitrate the dispute.  The Trump administration has attempted to remove Chapter 19 of the new USMCA text, which until now existed in the agreement. National procedures for ratifying the agreement in the United States are governed by the legislation of the Trade Promotion Authority, which is also known as the fast-track authority. An April 2019 analysis by the International Trade Commission on the likely effects of the USMCA estimated that if the agreement were fully implemented (six years after ratification), the agreement would increase the United States.